search(1) USER COMMANDS search(1)SEARCH search - search files (a'la grep) in a whole directory tree.SYNOPSIS search [ grep-like and find-like options] [regex ....]DESCRIPTION Search is more or less a combo of 'find' and 'grep' (although the regular expression flavor is that of the perl being used, which is closer to egrep's than grep's). Search does generally the same kind of thing that find | xargs egrep does, but is much more powerful and efficient (and intui- tive, I think). This manual describes search as of version "960325.7". You can always find the latest version at EXAMPLE Basic use is simple: % search jeff will search files in the current directory, and all sub directories, for files that have "jeff" in them. The lines will be listed with the containing file's name prepended. If you list more than one regex, such as with % search jeff Larry Randal+ 'Stoc?k' 'C.*son' then a line containing any of the regexes will be listed. This makes it effectively the same as % search 'jeff|Larry|Randal+|Stoc?k|C.*son' However, listing them separately is much more efficient (and is easier to type). Note that in the case of these examples, the -w (list whole-words only) option would be useful. And if your ter- minal supports ANSI escape sequences, you can use -bold to higlight the items found. Furthermore, if your display sup- ports color as well, you can use -red, -green, -yellow, etc. instead to have the searched items marked with the given color. Normally, various kinds of files are automatically removed from consideration. If it has has a certain ending (such as ".tar", ".Z", ".o", .etc), or if the beginning of the file looks like a binary, it'll be excluded. You can control exactly how this works -- see below. One quick way to over- ride this is to use the -all option, which means to consider all the files that would normally be automatically excluded. Or, if you're curious, you can use -why to have notes about what files are skipped (and why) printed to stderr.BASIC OVERVIEW Normally, the search starts in the current directory, con- sidering files in all subdirectories. You can use the ~/.search file to control ways to automati- cally exclude files. If you don't have this file, a default one will kick in, which automatically add -skip .o .Z .gif (among others) to exclude those kinds of files (which you probably want to skip when searching for text, as is nor- mal). Files that look to be be binary will also be excluded. Files ending with "#" and "~" will also be excluded unless the -x~ option is given. You can use -showrc to show what kinds of files will nor- mally be skipped. See the section on the startup file for more info. You can use the -all option to indicate you want to consider all files that would otherwise be skipped by the startup file. Based upon various other flags (see "WHICH FILES TO CON- SIDER" below), more files might be removed from considera- tion. For example -mtime 3 will exclude files that aren't at least three days old (change the 3 to -3 to exclude files that are more than three days old), while -skip .* would exclude any file beginning with a dot (of course, '.' and '..' are special and always excluded). If you'd like to see what files are being excluded, and why, you can get the list via the -why option. If a file makes it past all the checks, it is then "con- sidered". This usually means it is greped for the regular expressions you gave on the command line. If any of the regexes match a line, the line is printed. However, if -list is given, just the filename is printed. Or, if -nice is given, a somewhat more (human-)readable out- put is generated. If you're searching a huge tree and want to keep informed about how the search is progressing, -v will print (to stderr) the current directory being searched. Using -vv will also print the current file "every so often", which could be useful if a directory is huge. Using -vvv will print the update with every file. Below is the full listing of options.OPTIONS TELLING *WHERE* TO SEARCH -dir DIR Start searching at the named directory instead of the current directory. If multiple -dir arguments are given, multiple trees will be searched. -ddir DIR Like -dir except it flushes any previous -dir direc- tories (i.e. "-dir A -dir B -dir C" will search A, B, and C, while "-dir A -ddir B -dir C" will search only B and C. This might be of use in the startup file (see that section below). -xdev Stay on the same filesystem as the starting directory/directories. -sort Sort the items in a directory before processing them. Normally they are processed in whatever order they hap- pen to be read from the directory. -nolinks Don't follow symbolic links. Normally they're followed. -depth=0 Don't descend into subdirectories. Only a depth of 0 currently supported.OPTIONS CONTROLLING WHICH FILES TO CONSIDER AND EXCLUDE -mtime NUM Only consider files that were last changed more than NUM days ago (less than NUM days if NUM has '-' prepended, i.e. "-mtime -2.5" means to consider files that have been changed in the last two and a half days). -older FILE Only consider files that have not changed since FILE was last changed. If there is any upper case in the "-older", "or equal" is added to the sense of the test. Therefore, "search -older ./file regex" will never con- sider "./file", while "search -Older ./file regex" will. If a file is a symbolic link, the time used is that of the file and not the link. -newer FILE Opposite of -older. -name GLOB Only consider files that match the shell filename pat- tern GLOB. The check is only done on a file's name (use -path to check the whole path, and use -dname to check directory names). Multiple specifications can be given by separating them with spaces, a'la -name '*.c *.h' to consider C source and header files. If GLOB doesn't contain any special pattern characters, a '*' is prepended. This last example could have been given as -name '.c .h' It could also be given as -name .c -name .h or -name '*.c' -name '*.h' or -name '*.[ch]' (among others) but in this last case, you have to be sure to supply the leading '*'. -path GLOB Like -name except the entire path is checked against the pattern. -regex REGEX Considers files whose names (not paths) match the given perl regex exactly. -iname GLOB Case-insensitive version of -name. -ipath GLOB Case-insensitive version of -path. -iregex REGEX Case-insensitive version of -regex. -dpath GLOB Only search down directories whose path matches the given pattern (this doesn't apply to the initial direc- tory given by -dir, of course). Something like -dir /usr/man -dpath /usr/man/man* would completely skip "/usr/man/cat1", "/usr/man/cat2", etc. -dskip GLOB Skips directories whose name (not path) matches the given pattern. Something like -dir /usr/man -dskip cat* would completely skip any directory in the tree whose name begins with "cat" (including "/usr/man/cat1", "/usr/man/cat2", etc.). -dregex REGEX Like -dpath, but the pattern is a full perl regex. Note that this quite different from -regex which considers only file names (not paths). This option considers full directory paths (not just names). It's much more useful this way. Sorry if it's confusing. -dpath GLOB This option exists, but is probably not very useful. It probably wants to be like the '-below' or something I mention in the "TODO" section. -idpath GLOB Case-insensitive version of -dpath. -idskip GLOB Case-insensitive version of -dskip. -idregex REGEX Case-insensitive version of -dregex. -all Ignore any 'magic' or 'option' lines in the startup file. The effect is that all files that would other- wise be automatically excluded are considered. -xSPECIAL Arguments starting with -x (except -xdev, explained elsewhere) do special interaction with the ~/.search startup file. Something like -xflag1 -xflag2 will turn on "flag1" and "flag2" in the startup file (and is the same as "-xflag1,flag2"). You can use this to write your own rules for what kinds of files are to be considered. For example, the internal-default startup file contains the line option: -skip '~ #' This means that if the -x~ flag is not seen, the option -skip '~ #' should be done. The effect is that emacs temp and backup files are not normally considered, but you can included them with the -x~ flag. You can write your own rules to customize search in powerful ways. See the STARTUP FILE section below. -why Print a message (to stderr) when and why a file is not considered.OPTIONS TELLING WHAT TO DO WITH FILES THAT WILL BE CONSIDERED -find or -b This option changes the basic action of search. Normally, if a file is considered, it is searched for the regular expressions as described earlier. However, if this option is given, the filename is printed and no searching takes place. This turns search into a 'find' of some sorts. In this case, no regular expressions are needed on the command line (any that are there are silently ignored). This is not intended to be a replacement for the 'find' program, but to aid you in understanding just what files are getting past the exclusion checks. If you really want to use it as a sort of replacement for the 'find' program, you might want to use -all so that it doesn't waste time checking to see if the file is binary, etc (unless you really want that, of course). If you use -find, none of the "GREP-LIKE OPTIONS" (below) matter. As a replacement for 'find', search is probably a bit slower (or in the case of GNU find, a lot slower -- GNU find is unbelievably fast). However, "search -ffind" might be more useful than 'find' when options such as -skip are used (at least until 'find' gets such func- tionality). -ffind or -ff A faster more 'find'-like find. Does -find -all -dorepGREP-LIKE OPTIONS These options control how a searched file is accessed, and how things are printed. -F or -lit Causes arguments to be taken as literal text rather than as perl regular expressions. -R or -regex Undoes -T. Regex arguments are indeed taken as perl regular expressions. -i Ignore letter case when matching. -noi Don't ignore letter case when matching (useful for overriding a -i in the startup file) -w Consider only whole-word matches ("whole word" as defined by perl's "\b" regex). -u If the regex(es) is/are simple, try to modify them so that they'll work in manpage-like underlined text (i.e. like _^Ht_^Hh_^Hi_^Hs). This is very rudimentary at the moment. -list or -l -list Don't print matching lines, but the names of files that contain matching lines. This will likely be *much* faster, as special optimizations are made -- particularly with large files. -n Pepfix each line by its line number. -nice Not a grep-like option, but similar to -list, so included here. -nice will have the output be a bit more human-readable, with matching lines printed slightly indented after the filename, a'la % search foo somedir/somefile: line with foo in it somedir/somefile: some food for thought anotherdir/x: don't be a buffoon! % will become % search -nice foo somedir/somefile: line with foo in it some food for thought anotherdir/x: don't be a buffoon! % This option due to Lionel Cons. -nnice Be a bit nicer than -nice. Prefix each file's output by a rule line, and follow with an extra blank line. -h Don't prepend each output line with the name of the file (meaningless when -find or -l are given).OPTIONS WHICH INDICATE HOW TO DISPLAY In addition to the -nice and -nnice from just above, you can use the following if your display supports ANSI escape sequences (most systems seem to). -bold Show the found items in reverse video. -red Show the found items in red. -green Show the found items in green. -yellow Show the found items in yellow. -blue Show the found items in blue. -cyan Show the found items in cyan. -white Show the found items in white. -black Show the found items in black.OTHER OPTIONS -help Print the usage information. -version Print the version information and quit. -v Set the level of message verbosity. -v will print a note whenever a new directory is entered. -vv will also print a note "every so often". This can be useful to see what's happening when searching huge direc- tories. -vvv will print a new with every file. -vvvv is -vvv plus -why. -e This ends the options, and can be useful if the regex begins with '-'. -showrc Shows what is being considered in the startup file, then exits. -dorep Normally, an identical file won't be checked twice (even with multiple hard or symbolic links). If you're just trying to do a fast -find, the bookkeeping to remember which files have been seen is not desirable, so you can eliminate the bookkeeping with this flag.STARTUP FILE When search starts up, it processes the directives in ~/.search. If no such file exists, a default internal ver- sion is used. The internal version looks like: magic: 32 : $H =~ m/[\x00-\x06\x10-\x1a\x1c-\x1f\x80\xff]{2}/ filter: $N =~ m/.(gz|Z)$/ : "zcat %" option: -skip '.a .COM .elc .EXE .o .pbm .xbm .dvi' option: -iskip '.tarz .zip .lzh .jpg .jpeg .gif .uu' option: -skip '~ #' If you wish to create your own "~/.search", you might con- sider copying the above, and then working from there. There are three kinds of directives in a startup file: "filter", "magic" and "option". OPTION Option lines will automatically do the command-line options given. For example, the line option: -v in you startup file will turn on -v every time, without needing to type it on the command line. The text on the line after the "option:" directive is processed like the Bourne shell, so make sure to pay attention to quoting. option: -skip .exe .com will give an error (".com" by itself isn't a valid option), while option: -skip ".exe .com" will properly include it as part of -skip's argument. MAGIC Magic lines are used to determine if a file should be considered a binary or not (the term "magic" refers to checking a file's magic number). These are described in more detail below. FILTER Filter lines are used to apply a command to a file to get the text to search. The format of a FILTER line is: filter : EXPRESSION: "command...." where EXPRESSION is a perl expression used to determine if the filter should be applied to a given file (the file's name will be in the variable $N, but remember that files excluded via -skip, etc., won't even be con- sidered for a filter). If true, the COMMAND will be executed and its standard-output will be checked. ``%'' in the command string will be replace by the filename. The most common example would be to uncompress a file on the fly, i.e. filter: $N =~ m/.(gz|Z)$/ : "zcat %" Note that had the ``zcat'' been ``gunzip'' instead, you'd uncompress your files in place instead of search- ing them, so take care when specifying a filter! If you're worried about mixing up GNU'z zcat with an old one, you might use seperate ones as with: filter: $N =~ m/.gz$/ : "/my/GNU/binaries/zcat %" filter: $N =~ m/.Z$/ : "/the/non-GNU/binaries/zcat %" Also note that when a filter is applied, the MAGIC sec- tion is ignored for the file (this can be considered a bug, so it might change in the future). Blank lines and comments (lines beginning with '#') are allowed. If a line begins with <...>, then it's a check to see if the directive on the line should be done or not. The stuff inside the <...> can contain perl's && (and), || (or), ! (not), and parens for grouping, along with "flags" that might be indicated by the user with -xflag options. For example, using "-xfoo" will cause "foo" to be true inside the <...> blocks. Therefore, a line beginning with "" would be done only when "-xfoo" had been specified, while a line beginning with "" would be done only when "-xfoo" is not specified (of course, a line without any <...> is done in either case). A realistic example might be -vv This will cause -vv messages to be the default, but allow "-xv" to override. There are a few flags that are set automatically: TTY true if the output is to the screen (as opposed to being redirected to a file). You can force this (as with all the other automatic flags) with -xTTY. -v True if -v was specified. If -vv was specified, both -v and -vv flags are true (and so on). -nice True if -nice was specified. Same thing about -nnice as for -vv. -list true if -list (or -l) was given. -dir true if -dir was given. Using this info, you might change the last example to option: -vv The added "&& !-v" means "and if the '-v' option not given". This will allow you to use "-v" alone on the command line, and not have this directive add the more verbose "-vv" automatically. Some other examples: option: -dir ~/ Effectively make the default directory your home direc- tory (instead of the current directory). Using -dir or -xhere will undo this. option: -name .tex -dir ~/pub Create '-xtex' to search only "*.tex" files in your ~/pub directory tree. Actually, this could be made a bit better. If you combine '-xtex' and '-dir' on the command line, this directive will add ~/pub to the list, when you probably want to use the -dir directory only. You could do option: -name .tex option: -dir ~/pub to will allow '-xtex' to work as before, but allow a command-line "-dir" to take precedence with respect to ~/pub. option: -nnice -sort -i -vvv Combine a few user-friendly options into one '-xfluff' option. option: -ddir /usr/man -v -w When the '-xman' option is given, search "/usr/man" for whole-words (of whatever regex or regexes are given on the command line), with -v. The lines in the startup file are executed from top to bot- tom, so something like option: -xflag1 -xflag2 option: ...whatever... option: ...whatever... will allow '-xboth' to be the same as '-xflag1 -xflag2' (or '-xflag1,flag2' for that matter). However, if you put the "" line below the others, they will not be true when encountered, so the result would be different (and probably undesired). The "magic" directives are used to determine if a file looks to be binary or not. The form of a magic line is magic: SIZE : PERLCODE where SIZE is the number of bytes of the file you need to check, and PERLCODE is the code to do the check. Within PERLCODE, the variable $H will hold at least the first SIZE bytes of the file (unless the file is shorter than that, of course). It might hold more bytes. The perl should evaluate to true if the file should be considered a binary. An example might be magic: 6 : substr($H, 0, 6) eq 'GIF87a' to test for a GIF ("-iskip .gif" is better, but this might be useful if you have images in files without the ".gif" extension). Since the startup file is checked from top to bottom, you can be a bit efficient: magic: 6 : ($x6 = substr($H, 0, 6)) eq 'GIF87a' magic: 6 : $x6 eq 'GIF89a' You could also write the same thing as magic: 6 : (($x6 = substr($H, 0, 6)) eq 'GIF87a') || ## an old gif, or..\ $x6 eq 'GIF89a' ## .. a new one. since newlines may be escaped. The default internal startup file includes magic: 32 : $H =~ m/[\x00-\x06\x10-\x1a\x1c-\x1f\x80\xff]{2}/ which checks for certain non-printable characters, and catches a large number of binary files, including most system's executables, linkable objects, compressed, tarred, and otherwise folded, spindled, and mutilated files. Another example might be ## an archive library magic: 17 : substr($H, 0, 17) eq "!\n__.SYMDEF"RETURN VALUE Search returns zero if lines (or files, if appropriate) were found, or if no work was requested (such as with -help). Returns 1 if no lines (or files) were found. Returns 2 on error.TODO Things I'd like to add some day: + show surrounding lines (context). + highlight matched portions of lines. + add '-and', which can go between regexes to override the default logical or of the regexes. + add something like -below GLOB which will examine a tree and only consider files that lie in a directory deeper than one named by the pattern. + add 'warning' and 'error' directives. + add 'help' directive.BUGS If -xdev and multiple -dir arguments are given, any file in any of the target filesystems are allowed. It would be better to allow each filesystem for each separate tree. Multiple -dir args might also cause some confusing effects. Doing -dir some/dir -dir other will search "some/dir" completely, then search "other" com- pletely. This is good. However, something like -dir some/dir -dir some/dir/more/specific will search "some/dir" completely *except for* "some/dir/more/specific", after which it will return and be searched. Not really a bug, but just sort of odd. File times (for -newer, etc.) of symbolic links are for the file, not the link. This could cause some misunderstandings. Probably more. Please let me know.AUTHOR Jeffrey Friedl, Omron Corp ( SOURCE See